An examination of Specific Gravity, XRF and Ultrasound testing to confirm gold bullion and silver bars

Counterfeit silver tests, counterfeit silver verification and how to test silver

There is an exhibit of test techniques to confirm gold bullion and silver bars which measure a scope of concoction, physical and electromagnetic properties. Suitable testing ought to be non-dangerous and preferably indisputable. Non-ruinous however uncertain strategies incorporate attractive testing and ping testing. Any results from uncertain testing of bullion items ought to be treated with alert for conceivable false positive approval. This article examines three usually utilized testing techniques and their capability to deliver false acceptances.

The time-respected specific gravity test

Testing by XRF instruments ordinarily found in merchant and pawn shops

Testing utilizing a reasonable ultrasound test pack

The Specific Gravity Test

Since the time that the Greek mathematician, Archimedes, was tasked to create a test to figure out if King Heiro II of Syracuse had been given a crown produced using fake gold almost 2250 years back, specific gravity testing has been a prominent strategy to confirm the credibility of gold and silver items.

Testing for specific gravity is generally simple and could be possible with an exact set of scales. Place the gold or silver bullion on the scales and record the weight (1). Place a holder loaded with refined water on the scales. Zero the scales. Utilizing an apparatus with angling line or a comparable light weight material, suspend the gold or silver so it is totally inundated in the water. Don’t permit the bar or bullion, or anything used to suspend it, to touch the base or some other piece of the holder of water. Presently record that weight (2). Separation weight (1) by weight (2). For unadulterated gold the result (specific gravity) will be 19.32. For silver the result will be 10.49.

Shockingly, the late expansion in the utilization of base metal embeds and centers to match the densities of gold and silver now make this test unacceptable as a stand-alone decisive answer for recognizing fakes. Tungsten can be utilized as a part of precise extents to mirror the mass and volume of gold in bullion. Lead can be utilized as a part of precise extents with minor measures of an alternate base metal, for example, copper, to fake silver bars.

XRF Analysis

X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) is generally utilized by bullion merchants and pawn shops to give an examine (test of immaculateness) for gold and silver articles. On account of bullion and bars the surface is dissected to give a rate of every last one of metals present, which can then be contrasted and the known specifications for that specific bullion item. Quality XRF instruments are reasonably extravagant, and along these lines buys by individual valuable metals speculators are frequently hard to defend. In any case, bullion merchants frequently offer fast and advantageous XRF investigation in their stores. XRF examining and test with a respectable instrument will give greatly precise results.

Lamentably, the destruction is that results from XRF examination are restricted to the external surface of the article being tried. Normally the greatest profundity of entrance into gold by XRF is just 0.01mm or 10 microns. A forger just needs to guarantee that bullion and bars with fake base metal centers have a sufficiently thick covering of genuine gold or silver at the same immaculateness as the honest to goodness bullion item.

To overcome uncertain results from specific gravity testing and XRF examination, ultrasound is the test strategy for decision for all speculators.

Ultrasonic Testing

Testing with ultrasound includes measuring both the speed of sound in gold bullion and silver bars against the separation the sound waves travel. Sound speed is subject to both the versatility and thickness of the material. Identification by contrasts in sound speed between valuable metals, and the base metals utilized as centers as a part of fakes, sureties recognizable proof of fakes. Case in point, whilst gold and tungsten have very much alike densities, they contrast enormously in flexibility. Gold is extremely moldable and tungsten is exceptionally fragile. All things considered the speed of sound passing through unadulterated gold is 3240 m/s, whilst for tungsten it is 5180 m/s.

With a reasonable ultrasonic test pack the valuable metal financial specialist can undoubtedly compute the separation that sound waves go through gold bullion and silver bars. Basically by presetting the known sound speed of the valuable metal being tried, the instrument gives back a separation which is contrasted and the known thickness of the bullion or bar. This thickness can then be contrasted and the thickness discovered by item specifications, calipers or even a ruler.

Furthermore, ultrasonic sound waves discharged from a ultrasound transducer will reflect at interfaces between distinctive materials. Case in point ultrasonic waves passing through gold that experience tungsten will be reflected once more to the transducer. This will give an insignificant result in the instrument that does authenticate with the thickness of the gold or silver bullion or bar being measured.

Whilst specific gravity and XRF testing can frequently recognize straightforward fakes of gold bullion and silver bars, because of late and propelled duplicating systems, these tests are at risk to give false positives. Then again, it is exceptionally troublesome, if not outlandish, to fake bullion and bars to give false confirmation by ultrasound. Along these lines all suspicious results recorded by ultrasonic testing warrant further examination for messing around with supplements, thick plating, or voids.

Ultrasonic testing is suitable for all 10 gram silver bullion and bars, including;

10 Gram PAMP Suisse Fortuna Silver Bar

All 1/2 oz silver bullion and bars, including;

1/2 oz PAMP Suisse Fortuna Silver Bar

All 20 gram silver bullion and bars, including;

20 Gram PAMP Suisse Fortuna Silver Bar

All 1 oz silver bullion and bars, including;

1 oz PAMP Suisse Snake Silver Bar
1 oz PAMP Suisse Dragon Silver Bar
1 oz Atlantis Dragon Hand Poured Silver Bar
1 oz Atlantis Skull and Crossbones Hand Poured Silver Bar
1 oz Geiger Silver Bar
1 oz Monarch Hand Poured Silver Bar
1 oz Johnson Matthey Silver Bar
1 oz SilverTowne Retro Eagle Silver Bar
1 oz SilverTowne Retro Prospector Silver Bar
1 oz SilverTowne Eagle Silver Bar
1 oz SilverTowne Prospector Silver Bar
1 oz PAMP Suisse Fortuna Silver Bar
1 oz GAM Morgan Silver Bar
1 oz Sunshine Silver Bar

All 50 gram silver bullion and bars, including;

50 Gram PAMP Suisse Fortuna Silver Bar
50 Gram Geiger Security Line Silver Bar

All 2 oz silver bullion and bars, including;

2 oz Atlantis Skull and Crossbones Hand Poured Silver Bar
2 oz Monarch Hand Poured Silver Bar

All 3 oz silver bullion and bars, including;

3 oz Monarch Hand Poured Silver Bar
3 oz 25th Anniversary Austrian Silver Philharmonic Bar
3 oz 25th Anniversary Australian Silver Kookaburra Bar

All 100 oz silver bullion and bars, including;

100 Gram PAMP Suisse Dragon Silver Bar
100 Gram PAMP Suisse Snake Silver Bar
100 Gram PAMP Suisse Horse Silver Bar
100 Gram PAMP Suisse Goat Silver Bar
100 Gram PAMP Suisse Fortuna Silver Bar
100 Gram Geiger Silver Security Line Bar

All 5 oz silver bullion and bars, including;

5 oz PAMP Suisse Fortuna Silver Bar
5 oz Atlantis Pirate Hand Poured Silver Bar
5 oz Atlantis Skull and Crossbones Hand Poured Silver Bar
5 oz SilverTowne Poured Silver Bar
5 oz Monarch Hand Poured Silver Bar
5 oz SilverTowne Eagle Silver Bar
5 oz SilverTowne Buffalo Silver Bar
5 oz SilverTowne Prospector Silver Bar
5_oz_SilverTowne_Bar
5 oz Walking Liberty Silver Bar
5 oz Morgan Silver Bar
5 oz Sunshine Silver Bar

All 250 gram silver bullion and bars, including;

250 Gram Geiger Security Line Silver Bar

All 10 oz silver bullion and bars, including;

10 oz PAMP Suisse Fortuna Silver Bar
10 oz RCM Silver Bar
10 oz Engelhard Silver Bar
10 oz SilverTowne Poured Silver Bar
10 oz RCM Silver Bar
10 oz Johnson Matthey Silver Bar
10 oz Geiger Security Line Silver Bar
10 oz Walking Liberty Silver Bar
10 oz Morgan Silver Bar
10oz_Morgan_Silver_Bar_dual
10 oz SilverTowne Eagle Silver Bar
10 oz SilverTowne Prospector Silver Bar
10 oz SilverTowne American Flag Silver Bar
10 oz Highland Goat Silver Bar
10 oz NTR Goat Silver Bar
10 oz Great American Mint Silver Bar
10 oz RMC Silver Bar
10 oz NTR Silver Bar
10 oz Sunshine Silver Bar
10 oz A-Mark Silver Bar

All 250 gram silver bullion and bars, including;

250 Gram PAMP Suisse Fortuna Silver Bar

All 500 gram silver bullion and bars, including;

500 Gram PAMP Suisse Fortuna Silver Bar
500 Gram Geiger Silver Security Line Bullion Bar

All 1 kg silver bullion and bars, including;

1 Kilo PAMP Suisse Fortuna Silver Bar
1 Kilo Geiger Security Line Silver Bar
1 Kilo Johnson Matthey Silver Bar
1 Kilo OPM Silver Bar
1 Kilo RMC Silver Bar

All 50oz silver bullion and bars, including;

50 oz SilverTowne Poured Silver Bar

All 100 oz silver bullion and bars; including;

100 oz Geiger Security Line Silver Bar
100 oz RCM Silver Bar
100 oz Johnson Matthey Silver Bar
100 oz Sunshine Silver Bar